Harris, D. M., Liu, T., & Bush, J. W. (2015). A low-cost, precise piezoelectric droplet-on-demand generator. Experiments in Fluids, 56(4), 1-7.

We present the design of a piezoelectric droplet-on-demand generator capable of producing droplets of highly repeatable size ranging from 0.5 to 1.4 mm in diameter. The generator is low cost and simple to fabricate. We demonstrate the manner in which droplet diameter can be controlled through variation of the piezoelectric driving waveform parameters, outlet pressure, and nozzle diameter.